Sustainable Tompkins stands with the residents of the Finger Lakes region opposing construction of Crestwood's methane gas storage in the abandoned salt caverns under Seneca Lake — the heart of a regional economy based on tourism, wine and farming. But it seems the citizens of our region are "children of a lesser god." At least, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission seems to think so, as they've granted a permit for this risky project.
Apparently, a majority of the Schuyler County legislature and Reading town board accept that their constituents don't have rights to clean air and clean water, because they have acquiesced to the interests of out-of-state corporations. The rail and truck traffic forecast for the depot guarantees significant air pollution in the valley, and the risk of leaks and spills is also very high. In contrast, four county legislatures and nine municipal boards in the surrounding area have voted against the gas depot because it threatens the quality of life, health and economic well-being of their constituents.
A thorough risk analysis led by Rob MacKenzie was done at the request of a Schuyler County legislator. The risk of a major accident or failure is estimated at over 40 percent over the next 25 years. That's an exceptionally high risk to force upon the residents of any region. It's also highly probable that the pressurized gas inside the salt domes will force more dissolved salts through fractures and into the lake bottom, causing rapid increases in the lake's salinity. Seneca Lake is already the saltiest of the Finger Lakes because of the past 60 years of gas storage, and it is the drinking water source for over 100,000.
Voters and taxpayers are mobilizing across the state and declaring that they hold rights that cannot be surrendered to the profit margins of the fossil-fuel industry and the political interests of President Barack Obama and Gov. Andrew Cuomo. The Seneca gas depot is just part of the many-headed hydra of methane gas infrastructure expansion the Cuomo administration has welcomed into New York. Given the pace of growing climate disruption, we can't afford to waste money on risky gas infrastructure that will eventually be abandoned.
Polls show that many are ready to make the transition to efficiency and renewables now, and we want leaders who will help, not hinder, our progress toward true energy democracy. The people are determined to protect their homes and beloved landscapes from risky ventures that enrich wealthy corporations. We refuse to be anybody's sacrifice zone for we are not children of a lesser god.
Crestwood’s plan is to turn a profit by stuffing natural gas and LPG from Marcellus Shale fracking operations in Pennsylvania into the cheapest, riskiest type of underground storage facility in the industry — salt caverns.
The Seneca caverns are deeply flawed, bounded by layers of salt and brittle shale rock. They are subject to collapse and leakage, and the residents who live next to them face the statistically significant prospect of a catastrophic accident or a forced evacuation.
The company has repeatedly attempted to conceal that danger from the people it would put at risk. The DEC has enabled that irresponsible behavior out of fear that transparency invites controversy.
In late 2011, the agency held two public hearings on the LPG project in a Watkins Glen school auditorium.
But they were largely for show because the DEC was withholding key information from the hundreds who showed up. The DEC still keeps key parts of the company’s “reservoir suitability report” under lock and key. And while the state geologist must by law sign off on the integrity of caverns used for hydrocarbon storage, his reports — if they exist — aren’t public record.
Formal requests under the Freedom of Information Law were needed to pry lose bits of truth. They revealed letters that showed that the company’s own engineer had concluded in 2001 that the cavern now slated to hold liquid butane was “unusable for storage” after its roof had collapsed, leaving a giant rubble pile. He urged his boss to order the cavern plugged and abandoned. His boss agreed. So did the DEC. The cavern was plugged and abandoned.
Meanwhile down in the Southern Hemisphere, Sao Paulo in Brazil, Latin America's largest metropolis, may soon run out of water. Given that this mega-city of 20 million residents and the country's financial hub already is seeing many of its taps run dry, the future looks dire. At the time of this writing, the lakes that supply half of all the water to the city have been drained of 96 percent of their water capacity, as Brazil is in the midst of its worst drought in 80 years.
Looking eastward, the United Kingdom is on course to experience both one of the warmest and wettest years since record keeping began, generating fears that future droughts and flash floods will likely cost lives.
In the United States, with California now into the fourth year of its record-setting drought, the small farm town of Stratford is seeing its ground sink due to farmers having pumped so much water out of the ground that the water table below the town has fallen 100 feet in two years.
Even if the geologists can’t quite say aloud what the New York Times could publish—“that this civilization is already dead”8—they place us succinctly and directly in the present. The end of the world is not this or that disaster coming in the future—a biblical flood, the next hurricane, the collapse of Midwestern agriculture—nor is it a potential future extinction of homo sapiens. The end of the world is what we are living through right now. And whereas the deluge of newspaper accounts of “the collapse of civilization”9 focus almost primarily on environmental factors, we insist that the devastation named by the Anthropocene is just as much a spiritual, existential, human devastation as it is an environmental one. It is impossible to separate the collapse of ice sheets from the collapse of man. Yet here again, in the very name itself, the Anthropocene seems to exceed what is considered polite or acceptable to say.
From this angle the People’s Climate March and Mobilization looks a bit different. Rather than being a matter of too much clicktivism, too few paint bombs, or of making demands to an utterly discredited institution, the Mobilization was designed to function as a last ditch attempt to shore up the present. At work in the generation of a discourse of climate crisis and a climate movement is an operation that dims down the complex reality of our epoch to a single phenomenon—global warming as generated by increased ppm of CO2—and deriving from that a set of clearly representable subjects—from “frontline communities” to “climate activists”—and a set of core questions—how can this situation be managed and how can this way of life be saved from itself?—that in effect attempt to hold back the apocalypse one more day, while also holding back any possibility of redemption. Keeping us cocooned, trapped, within an eternal, frozen present.
Geological time scales, civilizational collapse and species extinction give rise to profound problems that humanities scholars and academic philosophers, with their taste for fine-grained analysis, esoteric debates and archival marginalia, might seem remarkably ill suited to address. After all, how will thinking about Kant help us trap carbon dioxide? Can arguments between object-oriented ontology and historical materialism protect honeybees from colony collapse disorder? Are ancient Greek philosophers, medieval theologians, and contemporary metaphysicians going to keep Bangladesh from being inundated by rising oceans?
Of course not. But the biggest problems the Anthropocene poses are precisely those that have always been at the root of humanistic and philosophical questioning: “What does it mean to be human?” and “What does it mean to live?” In the epoch of the Anthropocene, the question of individual mortality — “What does my life mean in the face of death?” — is universalized and framed in scales that boggle the imagination. What does human existence mean against 100,000 years of climate change? What does one life mean in the face of species death or the collapse of global civilization? How do we make meaningful choices in the shadow of our inevitable end?
These questions have no logical or empirical answers. They are philosophical problems par excellence. Many thinkers, including Cicero, Montaigne, Karl Jaspers, and The Stone’s own Simon Critchley, have argued that studying philosophy is learning how to die. If that’s true, then we have entered humanity’s most philosophical age — for this is precisely the problem of the Anthropocene. The rub is that now we have to learn how to die not as individuals, but as a civilization.
Learning how to die isn’t easy. In Iraq, at the beginning, I was terrified by the idea. Baghdad seemed incredibly dangerous, even though statistically I was pretty safe. We got shot at and mortared, and I.E.D.’s laced every highway, but I had good armor, we had a great medic, and we were part of the most powerful military the world had ever seen. The odds were good I would come home. Maybe wounded, but probably alive. Every day I went out on mission, though, I looked down the barrel of the future and saw a dark, empty hole.
Dear friends of Seneca Lake,
Last night, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation issued a draft permit for the storage of 88 billion gallons of propane and butane (liquefied petroleum gases, LPG) in Seneca Lake’s salt caverns.
This is not a surprise, but it is a travesty. It means that Houston-based Crestwood Midstream is now one step closer to realizing its sinister plan to turn our lake into a gas station for the fracking industry.
It means that Governor Cuomo is not protecting us. He’s protecting the things that threaten us. He could have told the DEC to deny the permit—and so stand up for the wine and tourism industries that he professes to champion and cherish.
But he didn’t.
If there is a silver lining in the black cloud of badness it is that the final approval of this draft permit is not automatic. It hinges on the results of an “issues conference,” which is scheduled for February 12. An issues conference is a prelude to a full adjudicatory hearing. At the conference, an administrative law judge will consider arguments by opponents of the project and determine if our concerns warrant a full hearing.
The issues conference is the result of persistent, loud citizen opposition. And also good science. But science alone did not win us the issues conference. And science alone will not stop Crestwood.
So far, the We Are Seneca Lake campaign has focused on methane storage, and we will continue to do so. However, with last night’s tragic but long-expected announcement, we now must resist gas storage of all kinds, including LPG, and recommit ourselves to our solemn responsibility to protect this lake—and our climate—for the sake of our children and future generations.
And, of course, it’s all connected: while we are defending our own health, safety and access to clean drinking water, we are also defending the economic vitality of our region, which is based on the twin pillars of vineyards and tourists. Here in the Finger Lakes, we know that economic growth, good health, and an unspoiled environment all dance together.
Now is the time for all good people to come to the aid of Seneca Lake.
There is nothing left to wait for. We need you to join us now, and we need you to invite your friends to join us.
Sign the Pledge. Your signature triggers an invitation to attend a non-violent civil disobedience training. We will contact you with details. . (There are two this week.)
You don’t have to go to jail. You don’t have to get arrested. But you do need to find the courage of your convictions, and, in return, you’ll have the chance to tell your grandkids, “See that lake? I once worked with many brave people, and we helped to save it.”
because blue is the color of faithfulness,
p.s. Here’s a photo from last week’s blockade. Martha Ferber is 90 years old. She was placed in handcuffs for defending water. I think she wants you to follow her.
Copyright © 2014 We Are Seneca Lake, All rights reserved.
The opposition has included innumerable letters and personal pleas to local, state and national politicians, thousands of signatures on petitions, newspaper articles and letters to editors, protest marches, rallies, the formation of a 200-plus member coalition of local businesses and three separate previous incidents of civil disobedience that ended with arrests for trespassing in the past two years.
Even though all that effort eventually resulted in a nearly unanimous local government response around Seneca Lake opposing the LPG storage, the arrested protesters — and many others — believe Crestwood is on track to eventually get its permit.
And that’s why they believe civil disobedience is the only thing left with which to fight — an act of patriotism with roots going back to the nation’s founding fathers.
One of the most famous acts of civil disobedience in American history occurred in Boston in 1773 when a shipload of tea from Britain was tossed into the harbor as a protest against an unfair tax levied on American colonists. That event is credited with helping launch the American Revolution, itself an ultimate exercise in civil disobedience.
The most recent arrests at Crestwood’s gates certainly don’t suggest that the arrested protesters are clandestinely forming a 21st century chapter of the Sons of Liberty.
But if the leaders represent the tip of a very large, very angry, very frustrated iceberg of Finger Lakes residents willing to be arrested to disrupt Crestwood’s activities for as long as it takes to convince the company to pack its bags and return to the Lone Star State, perhaps there is a hint of revolution in the air.
It will likely be peaceful — but maddeningly persistent — testing the patience of Crestwood, local law enforcement, the court system and even the activists all winter long.
But that’s what happens when government fails us.
New York state’s low-profile Green Party scored big in Tuesday’s election, even though its candidate for governor was never in contention.
Green Party candidate Howie Hawkins grabbed just 5 percent of the vote — but that was more than any other minor party except for the Conservatives.
As a result, the Greens moved from the sixth spot on the ballot to fourth for the next four years.
That’s important because voters won’t have to search so hard to find their candidate, said political analyst Hank Sheinkopf.
“The ballot-line order impacts the voters because the further away you are from Republicans and Democrats, the lower probability you’re going to be found unless you are a dedicated voter following the ideology of that party,” he said.
“It’s going down, the whole country,” Margaret Casey, 84, said outside a polling station in Howard Beach, Queens. Ms. Casey took a dim view of the current political leaders. “They are filling their pockets with money and telling you lies,” she said.
Still, she voted.
“I’m going to do my best to keep going, to do the right thing,” she said. “Got to have some honest people out there.
SENECA LAKE, NY – Entering the third week, starting at 7:00 AM this morning protesters blocked the gates of Texas-based Crestwood Midstream’s gas storage facility on the shore of Seneca Lake. 15 people were arrested at about 9:00 AM after Crestwood called the police. Last week, ten protesters were arrested in acts of civil disobedience blocking the gates, just as the 15 people did today. Protesters have held blockades at the Crestwood gate since Thursday, October 23; on Wednesday, October 29, they began blocking two of the gates to Crestwood. Notably, the ongoing protests also included a rally with more than 200 people at the Crestwood gate on Friday, October 24th.
Friday, October 24th marked the day that major new construction on the gas storage facility was authorized to begin. The ongoing acts of civil disobedience come after the community pursued every possible avenue to stop the project and after being thwarted by an unacceptable process and denial of science.
The protests are taking place at the gates of the Crestwood compressor station site on the shore of Seneca Lake, the largest of New York’s Finger Lakes. The methane gas storage expansion project is advancing in the face of broad public opposition and unresolved questions about geological instabilities, fault lines, and possible salinization of the lake, which serves as a source of drinking water for 100,000 people. A Capital New York investigation recently revealed that Governor Cuomo’s DEC excised references to the risks of underground gas storage from a 2011 federal report on methane contamination of drinking water and has allowed key data to remain hidden.
*Note that the WE ARE SENECA LAKE protest is to stop the expansion of methane gas storage, a separate project from Crestwood’s proposed Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage project, which is on hold pending a Department of Environmental Conservation Issues Conference.
The 15 people arrested today are: Lyn Gerry, John Dennis, Mariah Plumlee, Bob Henrie, Laura Salamendra, Elan Shapiro, Lindsay Clark, Darlene Bordwell, Jodi Dean, Ruth Young (former Schuyler County Legislator), Paul Passavant, Stephanie Redmond, Joanne Cipolla Dennis, Martha Ferger, and Kenneth Fogarty.
Ruth Young of Horseheads, a former member of the Schuyler County Legislature, was among those arrested today, said, “We’re standing on what used to be a part of my legislative district in Schuyler County. I am embarrassed and saddened to see what is going on here, I’m sad to see that some of the people in this district are actually supporting this endeavor to store gas in a very unstable salt formation.”
A core finding of the new report is that climate change is no longer a distant, future threat, but is being felt all over the world already. The group cited mass die-offs of forests, including those in the American West; the melting of land ice virtually everywhere in the world; an accelerating rise of the seas that is leading to increased coastal flooding; and heat waves that have devastated crops and killed tens of thousands of people.
The report contained the group’s sharpest warning yet about the food supply, saying that climate change had already become a small drag on overall global production, and could become a far larger one if emissions continue unchecked. The reported noted that in recent years the world’s food system had shown signs of instability, with sudden price increases leading to riots and, in a few cases, the collapse of governments.
Another central finding of the report is that climate change poses serious risks to basic human progress, in areas such as alleviating poverty. Under the worst-case scenarios, factors like high food prices and intensified weather disasters would most likely leave poor people worse off. In fact, the report said, that has already happened in some places.
Back here in Upstate New York, the story is much different. Although I am making many new friends (none of them my age) and finding a place in a new community of inspiring people, the tone is more focused and serious. While the Climate March is mostly an awareness-raising, mind-awakening crusade across the country, the fight to save Seneca Lake is exactly that; a fight. A battle. We are waging a weaponless war.
There are strategics and long planning meetings, reconnaissance missions and hours of research, media swarms and endless floods of emails, and the planning committee even fondly calls the citizens who have joined the resistance “troops.” And yet, we are fighting this war in peace, because we know that using violence to bring about peace is one of the biggest paradoxical mistakes humanity is still consistently making.
The Finger Lakes community has not arrived at the decision to use civil disobedience lightly. We have used every other possible option to redress our grievances. We have contacted and met with our representatives, we have written countless letters to the editor, we have rallied, we have united the area’s businesses against the project and we are pursuing the matter in the courts. Yet, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission blew past the overwhelming local opposition to the gas storage project and gave Crestwood the green light to store methane gas in unstable salt caverns beneath the western shore of Seneca Lake. Although FERC’s decision is certainly angering, it doesn’t necessarily come as a surprise. FERC is a federal agency that receives most of its funding from approving permits; hence, the more permits they approve the more money they get. This is a perfect example of our government valuing money over people and the planet.
The only thing we have left is our bodies. Although Crestwood claims in its biweekly reports to FERC that it has not yet started construction on the compressor station for the methane gas, they have been authorized since October 24th to begin. On October 23, 24 and 28, we blockaded the main entrance to Crestwood for most of the work day. Each day, they locked the gates and left us alone. On October 29, we knew we had to step up our game. Our group split up, and we blockaded both the main entrance and a smaller southern entrance at the same time. At first they shut both gates and made it look as though they were going to let us sit there again, but not long after a manager appeared asking if we would let a truck in.
“Tell me, how do you define ‘blockade’?” Lindsay Speer, my fellow Seneca Lake Defender asked.
Our resolve and commitment to nonviolence would soon be tested.
At the main gate, I was playing the role of police liaison, peace keeper and videographer/photographer. The group at the south gate called to tell me they had just turned away the manager, and to expect him at my gate next. About ten minutes later, a freight truck from Amrex Chemical Company based in Binghamton pulled into the driveway, and the manager appeared at the gate and asked us to let the truck in. I clarified to him that our blockade was not going to let anything in or out.
“Well, I’m going to open the gates, then!” He declared in a tone that said, ‘alright, you asked for it.’ The negotiation phase was over; now, they were using intimidation.
A contingent of local business owners, scientists, doctors and others went to our nation’s capital, Washingon, DC, a week ago and met with staff for US Senators Chuck Schumer, Kirsten Gillibrand and Congressman Tom Reed. We presented compelling arguments that these projects should be denied and we pleaded with them to intercede on behalf of their constituents with FERC. Our pleas have been falling on deaf ears for nearly 3 years now. Even though Congressman Reed has publicly stated that the Finger Lakes Region is too valuable a resource to allow hydro-fracking within its watershed, he has been silent on the gas storage project that carries the very same dangers with it. It’s time that our elected representatives in Washington stand up for the residents of the Finger Lakes Region and tell Crestwood that this is not a place for massive industrial gas storage.
Over 240 local and regional businesses and thousands of local residents have joined a coalition opposing Crestwood’s plans to industrialize our region putting the vibrant and growing winery and agri-tourism based economy we have here at risk. An independent study found that the risk of a serious or extremely serious catastrophic accident happening with this type of gas storage over a 25 year period is more than 40%. One incident like the catastrophe in Hutchinson, KS in 2001 would tarnish the brand of the Finger Lakes for generations.
Recognizing this, 13 municipalities in the Finger Lakes, including 4 counties, numerous Townships and the City of Geneva and Village of Watkins Glen have passed resolutions opposing Crestwood’s plans, most unanimously and across party lines.
We don’t want to take that risk so that an out of state corporation with no ties to the Finger Lakes and with zero liability in case of a catastrophic accident can take their profits back to Houston, TX, leaving us to clean up the mess.
The Texas-based energy corporation, Crestwood Midstream, is moving forward with plans to store highly pressurized, explosive gas in abandoned salt caverns on the west shore of Seneca Lake, despite documented instability of the salt caverns and concern over impacts to water quality and public safety. Construction is slated to begin October 24th. Learn more about the projects and their risks.
Salt cavern gas storage is part of a coordinated effort to build out massive infrastructure throughout the Northeast for fracked gas (methane), thus maintaining our dependency on fossil fuels for another 20 years – at a time when we critically need to be addressing climate change. Methane is 86 times more potent a greenhouse gas than CO2 over that same time period. This is a bridge to nowhere, and we are standing up to stop it.
We the people have testified, commented, rallied, marched, authored letters, delivered speeches, made phone calls, lobbied elected officials, and otherwise pursued all available avenues to convince local officials and regulatory agencies to protect us from the harms that Crestwood’s storage facilities pose to our health, environment and economy. Our appeals have fallen on deaf ears; we find ourselves thwarted at every turn.
We will not sit idly by while, behind a veil of secrecy and deceit, Seneca Lake is turned into a gas station for the fracking industry.
We believe we have a solemn responsibility, for the sake of our children and those who come after us, to protect the health and wellbeing of the lake that has given so much to us and makes our lives, and livelihoods, possible. We are committed to resisting the dangerous industrialization of our beautiful lake region and our agricultural and tourism-based economy. And we are equally committed to peaceful, non-violent action. In this, we bring love and resolve to our efforts.
This proposed project has faced unparalleled public opposition due to unresolved questions about geological instabilities, fault lines, possible salinization of the lake and public health concerns. Even though Capital New York investigation revealed this month that Gov. Cuomo’s Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) excised references to the risks of underground gas storage from a 2011 federal report on methane contamination of drinking water and has allowed key data to remain hidden, Crestwood still received federal approval to move forward with the construction of this methane gas storage project.
“Crestwood is threatening our water, our local economy and our families,” said Doug Couchon of Elmira, another resident participating in today’s blockade. “We’ve tried everything to stop this disastrous project, and now peaceful civil disobedience is our last resort.”
Protestors are outraged that Crestwood was given approval by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to store two billion cubic feet of methane (natural gas) in the caverns along the western shore of Seneca Lake where the New York State DEC temporarily halted plans to stockpile propane and butane (LPG) due to ongoing concerns for safety, health and the environment.
The project is opposed by more than 200 businesses, more than 60 wineries, 11 municipalities (including neighboring Watkins Glen) and thousands and thousands of residents in the Finger Lakes region who are concerned about the threat it poses to human health, drinking water and the local economy, including the tourism industry. A recent report on the state’s grape and wine industry showed that it contributes $4.8 billion to the New York State economy every year and generates more than 5.2 million wine-related tourism visits.
“As we literally put our bodies on the line, we once again call on President Obama, Governor Cuomo, Senator Schumer, Senator Gillibrand and Congressman Reed to do what’s right and step in and stop this terrible project from ruining the heart of the Finger Lakes,” said Watkins Glen resident Lyn Gerry who participated in today’s blockade.
Baybayan is part of a massive labor force that handles “content moderation”—the removal of offensive material—for US social-networking sites. As social media connects more people more intimately than ever before, companies have been confronted with the Grandma Problem: Now that grandparents routinely use services like Facebook to connect with their kids and grandkids, they are potentially exposed to the Internet’s panoply of jerks, racists, creeps, criminals, and bullies. They won’t continue to log on if they find their family photos sandwiched between a gruesome Russian highway accident and a hardcore porn video. Social media’s growth into a multibillion-dollar industry, and its lasting mainstream appeal, has depended in large part on companies’ ability to police the borders of their user-generated content—to ensure that Grandma never has to see images like the one Baybayan just nuked.
“EVERYBODY HITS THE WALL. YOU JUST THINK, ‘HOLY SHIT, WHAT AM I SPENDING MY DAY DOING?’”
So companies like Facebook and Twitter rely on an army of workers employed to soak up the worst of humanity in order to protect the rest of us. And there are legions of them—a vast, invisible pool of human labor. Hemanshu Nigam, the former chief security officer of MySpace who now runs online safety consultancy SSP Blue, estimates that the number of content moderators scrubbing the world’s social media sites, mobile apps, and cloud storage services runs to “well over 100,000”—that is, about twice the total head count of Google and nearly 14 times that of Facebook.
This work is increasingly done in the Philippines. A former US colony, the Philippines has maintained close cultural ties to the United States, which content moderatio
The environmental impact of the Koch family is not entirely an abstract question. Koch Industries is the second-largest private company in the country, and its holdings include oil refineries, oil-services companies and one of the nation’s biggest fertilizer manufacturers. Another Koch property is the paper-goods producer Georgia-Pacific, whose plant in Palatka, Fla. — at the end of the narrow Rice Creek tributary of the St. Johns River — is seen by Scott opponents as an object lesson in how political donations can materially affect the planet.
Feminists who have long demanded that government stay out of the bedroom are now inviting it into the dorm room.
Once, government and university officials hunted down suspected communists and communist sympathizers on campus. Today, they’re targeting campus sexual predators — alleged harassers and rapists — with similar disregard for civil liberty. California’s affirmative consent bill facilitates guilty findings by mandating a minimal, “preponderance of evidence” standard of proof, (advocated by the Obama administration) in campus sexual misconduct cases.
Affirmative consent requirements and the conviction bias that shapes new rules governing these cases practically ensure that students accused of sexual assault will be found guilty of it. In part, the drive to deny due process to those accused of assault is an overreaction to instances of denying redress to assault victims. In part it reflects a “progressive” ideological commitment to assuming that a self-identified victim’s recollection of a sexual encounter is absolutely, objectively true.
In an art context, to aestheticize the things of the present means to discover their dysfunctional, absurd, unworkable character—everything that makes them nonusable, inefficient, obsolete. To aestheticize the present means to turn it into the dead past. In other words, artistic aestheticization is the opposite of aestheticization by means of design. The goal of design is to aesthetically improve the status quo—to make it more attractive. Art also accepts the status quo—but it accepts it as a corpse, after its transformation into a mere representation. In this sense, art sees contemporaneity not merely from the revolutionary, but rather, the postrevolutionary perspective. One can say: modern and contemporary art sees modernity and contemporaneity as the French revolutionaries saw the design of the Old Regime—as already obsolete, reducible to pure form, already a corpse.